Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, we witnessed outbreaks of these very diseases in several African countries – yellow fever and measles in Uganda, measles and polio in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and cholera in Ethiopia, among others. These outbreaks – and continuous implementation of catch-up campaigns – in several African countries are an indication of the gaps in immunisation coverage. For example, in West and Central Africa, immunisation coverage stagnated at 70 per cent for polio and 71 per cent for measles in 2018, while in Eastern and Southern Africa, regional immunisation coverage was 77 per cent for polio and 76 per cent for measles. These gaps in coverage leave millions of children at risk of life-threatening diseases.
The value of vaccines
As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to spread and researchers and scientists across the globe work tirelessly to develop a vaccine we are reminded, now more than ever, of the immeasurable value of vaccines.
Vaccines save lives. They are the bedrock of primary health care, and one of the most important tools we have at our disposal to protect the health and wellbeing of children and adults everywhere. When people are vaccinated, they have a better chance of leading healthy, productive lives and fighting off new infections thanks to improved immunity.
COVID-19 paints a clear picture of what a world without vaccines could look like. Without protection and immunity against deadly infectious diseases, lives are lost, and public health, safety and economic growth are threatened. Strong immunisation systems are critical to equipping populations with the capacity to withstand public health shocks.
Building commitment on vaccination programmes
While the pandemic presents many challenges, it also presents an opportunity for collaboration among sectors, and for increased political commitment towards robust, sustainable vaccination programmes. In addition, COVID-19 has elevated the role of data and data systems for health service delivery and response in African countries, and will determine how we use them to inform vaccine availability, targeted interventions and hot-spot mapping going forward. It is an opportunity to rethink delivery of immunisation services across the globe, including how we can best reach marginalised and underserved communities.
In June, the Global Vaccine Summit was held – for the first time virtually – with the aim of mobilising funding to improve access to quality immunisation services. The Summit raised US$8.8 billion in pledges, funds that will be used to immunise 300 million children against infectious diseases and save up to 8 million lives over the next five years. In the past two decades, Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, has helped vaccinate more than 760 million people around the world through routine immunization, and reached nearly 1 billion people through targeted campaigns aimed at responding to disease outbreaks and boosting immunisation rates, especially among vulnerable populations. However, more still needs to be done to reach the millions of children in Africa who have not been immunised.
Even as governments set their sights on flattening the COVID-19 curve, they must ensure that the delivery of essential services such as immunisation remains a priority. In low- and middle-income countries especially, reallocation of funds previously earmarked for routine immunisation and other public health initiatives could lead to a reversal in gains made towards preventing, and in some cases eradicating, vaccine-preventable diseases.
It is therefore critical that now, perhaps more than ever, we prioritise immunisation and ensure that life-saving vaccines reach all people, especially the most vulnerable. As we work to contain COVID-19, let us also ensure that we do not lose the gains we have worked so hard to achieve. By continuing to invest in immunisation, we can protect current and future generations from preventable diseases, and build a healthier, more prosperous world for all.